Bees land like spacecraft

Now this is something I found pretty interesting; biologists found out that bees use a time-to-contact strategy when planning their landing. ESA’s Advanced Concept Team already summed up all relevant information, so I’ll give just the appropriate citations for further reading. Bonus: ACT implemented this strategy in a Parrot AR drone!


  1. “ACT / ESA – News – Biologists Find Bees Land like Spacecraft.” Accessed May 29, 2014.
  2. Baird, E., N. Boeddeker, M. R. Ibbotson, and M. V. Srinivasan. “A Universal Strategy for Visually Guided Landing.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110, no. 46 (November 12, 2013): 18686–91. doi:10.1073/pnas.1314311110.
  3. Izzo, Dario, and Guido De Croon. “Landing with Time-to-Contact and Ventral Optic Flow Estimates.” Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics 35, no. 4 (July 2012): 1362–67. doi:10.2514/1.56598.
  4. Visual Landing on a Planetary System, 2012.

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